Russia is one of the most sparsely populated and urbanised countries in the world; it had a population of 142.8 million according to the 2010 census, which rose to 146.2 million as of 2021. It is the most populous country in Europe, and the ninth-most populous country in the world; with a population density of 9 inhabitants per square kilometre (23 per square mile). The overall life expectancy in Russia at birth is 72.4 years (66.9 years for males and 77.6 years for females).

Since the 1990s, Russia’s death rate has exceeded its birth rate. In 2018, the total fertility rate across Russia was estimated to be 1.6 children born per woman, which is below the replacement rate of 2.1, and one of the lowest fertility rates in the world. Subsequently, the country has one of the oldest populations in the world, with an average age of 40.3 years. In 2009, it recorded annual population growth for the first time in fifteen years; since the 2010s, Russia has seen increased population growth due to declining death rates, increased birth rates and increased immigration.

Russia is a multinational state, home to over 193 ethnic groups. In the 2010 Census, roughly 81% of the population were ethnic Russians, while rest of the 19% of the population were minorities; while around 84.93% of the Russia’s population was of European descent, of which the vast majority were Slavs, with minorities of Germanic, Baltic-Finns and other peoples. There are 22 republics in Russia, designated to have their own ethnicities, cultures, and languages. In 13 of them, ethnic Russians consist a minority. According to the United Nations, Russia’s immigrant population is the third-largest in the world, numbering over 11.6 million; most of which are from post-Soviet states, mainly Ukrainians.